top of page


Submitted and Published Papers

December 2022

To compare the effectiveness of two exercise programs - whole-of-day activity accumulation (WODAA) and planned arm-crank exercise (PACE) - at improving health-related outcomes in manual wheelchair users with paraplegia.

Haubert, L. L., Rankin, J., Requejo, P., Eberly, V., Weiss, W., & Conners, S. (2022). Comparing Health Measures and Life Satisfaction for Individuals with Paraplegia Participating in Two Exercise Programs. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 103(12), e50-e52.

Exercise-2 (1).jpg

June 30, 2021

To compare prevalence of shoulder pain (SP) onset over 3 years for individuals with paraplegia from spinal cord injury who participate in one of two shoulder pain prevention program (SPPP) formats with that of a similar population without intervention, and to compare exercise adherence between two SPPP formats. 

Haubert, L. L., Mulroy, S. J., Eberly, V. J., Gronley, J. K., Hatchett, P. E., & Conners, S. G. (2021). Shoulder pain prevention program for manual wheelchair users with paraplegia: a randomized clinical trial. Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation, 27(4), 40-52.


June 1995

The limited walking ability that follows a stroke restricts the patient’s independent mobility about the home and community, a significant social handicap. To improve the in-hospital prediction of functional outcome, the relationships between impairment, disability, and handicap were assessed with clinical measures in 147 stroke patients. The measurement of therapeutic outcome in relation to the social advantage for the patient would allow more efficient standardization of treatment and services.

Perry, J., Garrett, M., Gronley, J. K., & Mulroy, S. J. (1995). Classification of walking handicap in the stroke population. Stroke, 26(6), 982-989.

December 2007

A phase II, single-blinded, randomized clinical trial was conducted to determine the effects of combined task-specific and lower-extremity (LE) strength training to improve walking ability after stroke. After chronic stroke, task-specific training during treadmill walking with body-weight support is more effective in improving walking speed and maintaining these gains at 6 months than resisted leg cycling alone.

Sullivan, K. J., Brown, D. A., Klassen, T., Mulroy, S., Ge, T., Azen, S. P., ... & Physical Therapy Clinical Research Network (PTClinResNet). (2007). Effects of task-specific locomotor and strength training in adults who were ambulatory after stroke: results of the STEPS randomized clinical trial. Physical therapy, 87(12), 1580-1602.

February 1988

Fifteen male athletes who were skilled in throwing and who had chronic anterior instability of the shoulder (Group 1) were evaluated by dynamic intramuscular electromyography while pitching a baseball. Indwelling wire electrodes recorded the levels of activity in the biceps, middle deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, pectoralis major, subscapularis, latissimus dorsi, and serratus anterior throughout the entire pitching sequence. The marked reduction in activity in the pectoralis major, subscapularis, and latissimus dorsi added to the anterior instability by decreasing the normal internal-rotation force that is needed during the phases of late cocking and acceleration.

Glousman, R., Jobe, F., Tibone, J., Moynes, D., Antonelli, D., & Perry, J. (1988). Dynamic electromyographic analysis of the throwing shoulder with glenohumeral instability. JBJS, 70(2), 220-226

August 2003

The mixture of gait deviations seen in patients following a stroke is remarkably variable. An objective system for classification of gait patterns for this population could be used to guide treatment planning. Differences in muscle strength and muscle activation patterns during walking were identified between groups.

Mulroy, S., Gronley, J., Weiss, W., Newsam, C., & Perry, J. (2003). Use of cluster analysis for gait pattern classification of patients in the early and late recovery phases following stroke. Gait & posture, 18(1), 114-125.

May 1984

This is the second report in a series of projects dealing with electromyographic (EMG) analysis of the upper extremity during throwing. Better understanding of the muscle activation patterns could lead to more effective preseason conditioning regimens and rehabilitation pro grams.

Jobe, F. W., Moynes, D. R., Tibone, J. E., & Perry, J. (1984). An EMG analysis of the shoulder in pitching: a second report. The American journal of sports medicine, 12(3), 218-220.

March 1992

The purpose of this study was to determine which exercises most effectively use the scapular muscles. Twelve of the exercises qualified as top exercises for all of the muscles. On further analysis, a group of 4 exercises was shown to make up the core of a scapular muscle strengthening program. Those 4 exercises include scaption (scapular plane elevation), rowing, push-up with a plus, and press-up.

Moseley JR, J. B., Jobe, F. W., Pink, M., Perry, J., & Tibone, J. (1992). EMG analysis of the scapular muscles during a shoulder rehabilitation program. The American journal of sports medicine, 20(2), 128-134.

March 2011

Shoulder pain is a common problem after spinal cord injury (SCI), with negative effects on daily activities and quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an exercise program and instruction to optimize performance of upper-extremity tasks on shoulder pain in people with paraplegia from SCI. This home-based intervention was effective in reducing long-standing shoulder pain in people with SCI.

Mulroy, S. J., Thompson, L., Kemp, B., Hatchett, P. P., Newsam, C. J., Lupold, D. G., ... & Gordon, J. (2011). Strengthening and optimal movements for painful shoulders (STOMPS) in chronic spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled trial. Physical therapy, 91(3), 305-324.

July 1999

Physiological energy expenditure measurement has proven to be a reliable method of quantitatively assessing the penalties imposed by gait disability. The purpose of this review is to outline the basic principles of exercise physiology relevant to human locomotion; detail the energy expenditure of normal walking; and summarize the results of energy expenditure studies performed in patients with specific neurologic and orthopedic disabilities. This paper also will examine the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions at mitigating the energetic penalties of disability during ambulation.

Waters, R. L., & Mulroy, S. (1999). The energy expenditure of normal and pathologic gait. Gait & posture, 9(3), 207-231.

January 1976

A comparison of selected gait parameters and the energy cost of prosthetic walking was made in seventy patients with unilateral traumatic and vascular amputations. In both groups of amputees performance was significantly better the lower the level of the amputation. When preservation of function is the chief concern, amputation should be performed at the lowest possible level.

Waters, R. L., Perry, J., Antonelli, D. A. N. I. E. L., & Hislop, H. (1976). Energy cost of walking of amputees: the influence of level of amputation. JBJS, 58(1), 42-46.

January 2004

Elevated walking plantar pressures are of significant concern due to the risk of tissue injury and ulceration and as a source of pain. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of walking velocity and footwear condition on plantar pressure variables in healthy older adults. Two conditions were associated with higher plantar pressures in the older adults studied: faster speeds and barefoot walking.

Burnfield, J. M., Few, C. D., Mohamed, O. S., & Perry, J. (2004). The influence of walking speed and footwear on plantar pressures in older adults. Clinical biomechanics, 19(1), 78-84.


bottom of page